Victory in the Pacific
2nd Edition Rules

Introduction -

VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC is a simulation of the strategic naval war in the Pacific in WWII, from the first attack on Pearl Harbor to the decisive Battle of the Philippine Sea in late 1944. Although all the major combat ships in the Japanese and Allied navies are portrayed in the game, and although the game board shows all the Pacific battle areas from Pearl Harbor to Ceylon, this game is only a simple simulation of the war on a strategic level, with most of the tactical details represented by artificial, simple game mechanics. As a result the game is easy, fast and fun to play, but it is not as realistic as a normal simulation or wargame.

VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC applies the game system from Avalon Hill's popular WAR AT SEA (which is about the British struggle against the German fleet in the Atlantic) to the wide seas and enormous fleets of the Pacific. Due to the greater magnitude and scope of the Pacific war, it is larger and more complex than WAR AT SEA, but VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC is still basically an Introductory game suited for players who want a simple, easy game. If you feel that this game is too unrealistic or luck dependent for your taste, there are many other Avalon Hill games that are more realistic and challenging. If you find this game enjoyable, you may wish to progress to our other Introductory games; if, on the other hand, you find VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC far too simple you should try an Intermediate level game. The most advanced games are our Tournament level games -- these are great fun, but they can be complex, so you will probably enjoy them most after mastering the tricks and ploys of an Intermediate game. Our enclosed catalog lists our games with their ratings. Welcome to the fascinating and fast-growing hobby of simulation gaming!

1. Object -

VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC is a two-player game with one player controlling the Imperial Japanese Navy and the other player having the Allied fleets (the United States' Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, and the British Eastern Fleet). The object of the game is to "control" the thirteen sea areas on the mapboard during the eight turns of the game. Each turn the players get "Points of Control" (hereafter referred to as POC) for the sea areas they "control"; at the end of the game the player with the most accumulated POC wins the game!

The number of POC that a player gets for controlling a sea area is printed on that sea area on the mapboard. There are two POC numbers in each area, one that the Japanese player gets if he controls the sea area, and one that the Allied player gets if the Allies control the sea area; the POC numbers are different for each player, and vary from sea area to sea area, because each side's POC number reflects how valuable that particular sea area was to that side's war effort. For example, Indonesia was crucial to the Japanese war effort, so the Japanese player gets three POC for controlling it, while the Allied player would get only one POC there; for the Allies the crucial sea areas are the Hawaiian Islands, U.S. Mandate and Coral Sea ---the areas on the vital Hawaii-to-Australia supply line.

To "control" a sea area a player must have a "patrolling" surface ship or a land-based air unit at sea in that area at the end of the turn. Only one player at a time can "control" a given sea area, so if both sides have units in the same sea area the units must fight until one (or both) side's units have all retreated or been sunk. The players use their capital ships, land-based air and amphibious units to control areas themselves and to prevent the enemy from controlling areas. The players are free to use their units to implement the strategies that were actually tried during the war, or they can try strategies that the actual combatants discarded -- or never even considered.

2. The Mapboard -

2.1 The mapboard portrays the sea areas, major ports and island bases that were the centers of fighting in the Pacific during World War II. The thirteen sea areas are the large blue areas, separated from each other by white lines. Major ports are the eight red circles and areas, and island bases are the fourteen green circles and areas, that are located within these sea areas or along the border between two (or three) sea areas; a port or base is assumed to be part of every sea area that it touches, so Guadalcanal (for example) is part of both the South Pacific Ocean and Coral Sea sea areas.

2.11 New Guinea is divided into two island bases, north (labeled "Lae") and south (labeled "Port Moresby"). Lae touches the South Pacific Ocean and Indonesia sea areas only, and Port Moresby touches the Indian Ocean and Coral Sea sea areas only. These two bases do not even touch each other -- they are separated by the Owen Stanley Ridge (the mountain ridge pictured on the board), which blocked large-scale military operations. As a result, land units cannot move directly between Lae and Port Moresby they must go to sea and invade to get around the Owen Stanley Ridge.

2.12 Note that the entire Philippines comprise one island base that touches both Indonesia and the Marianas Islands.

2.13 The brown areas on the mapboard are not used in the play of the game and are shown on the board solely to illustrate the geography of the Pacific Ocean.

2.2 Each sea area, major port or island base can be controlled by either side, and each area, base or port can change sides from turn to turn. Counters are placed on each area, base or port with the proper side up to indicate possession.

2.21 The rectangular Control Flag counters are placed on sea areas, one Control Flag per area with the appropriate flag face up to indicate who controls that sea area that turn.

2.22 The eight large circular counters with anchors on them are Garrison counters that are placed on the eight major ports on the board (colored red with anchors on or near them). The red circle (the Japanese Army symbol) is turned face up to indicate Japanese control, and the white star is turned face up to indicate Allied control.

2.23 The fourteen small circles are Garrison counters that are placed on the fourteen island bases on the board, with the red circle indicating Japanese control and the white star indicating Allied control.

2.3 Each major port or island base can be used only by the player who controls it that turn. Every port and island base is in operation throughout the game, but only for the side that controls it.

2.4 As a general rule, ships and other units move onto sea areas during turns and return to (friendly) bases or ports between turns.

2.5 The POC TRACK on the board is used to keep track of the players' relative POC accumulations. Each turn, each player totals the POC listed for his side in all the sea areas he controls that turn, the POC totals are subtracted from each other, and the player who gained the most POC that turn gains the difference and moves the POC counters along the POC TRACK to reflect the number of POC he gained over his opponent that turn (so if the Allied player gained 10 POC and the Japanese player got 7, the Allied player would gain 3 POC, and he would move the POC counters to show a gain of 3 POC. Japanese gains are shown by moving the markers towards the red end of the track, Allied gains towards the blue-numbered end. The "POC 10" counter is used on the 10's track to keep track of multiples of 10 POC; if either player gets 29 POC ahead (the largest number that can be shown on the track) he can gain no more, and stays there until his opponent starts gaining POC back.

3. The Playing Pieces -

3.1 Ships: The game contains four different sets of large, differently colored playing pieces that represent the capital ships of the four navies that fought in the Pacific: the United States Navy (colored blue), the Japanese Navy (colored red), the British Navy (colored dark green) and the Australian and Dutch Navies (colored light green -- the "De Ruyter" is the only Dutch ship in the game). These ships are referred to as "ships" or "surface ships" in these rules (note that the I-Boat and the F-Boat are not "surface ships" -- they are submarines). The following diagram explains the symbols on the ship counters:

“A” -- Australia
“B” -- Bay of Bengal
“C” -- Coral Sea
“H” -- Hawaiian Islands
“I” -- Indonesia
“M”-- Philippines
“P” -- Pearl Harbor
“S” -- Singapore
“U” -- U.S. Mandate
"W,X,Y,Z” -- Location Uncertain

Surface ship counters are printed on both sides. The front side is printed in color, with the ship silhouette printed in black; when the ship is placed in a sea area with this side face up, the ship is patrolling in that sea area. The reverse side of each ship is white, with the ship silhouette printed in the appropriate color; when the ship is placed in a sea area with its white side face up, that ship is raiding and attacking enemy patrollers instead of patrolling.

3.2 Submarines: There are two large counters representing submarines: the Japanese I-Boat, bearing a red circle, and the United States' F-Boat ("Fleet Boat") bearing a blue star.

3.3 Air and Ground units: The middle-sized playing pieces are “land-based air units” and "amphibious" units. The Japanese units are yellow and the Allied units are green. The counters:

3.4 Control pieces: The rectangular pieces and circular pieces are placed on the board to show which side controls each sea area, major port and island base.

3.5 The small white counters are playing aids used to mark disabled, damaged or sunk ships, and to keep track of POC on the POC TRACK.

4. The Order of Appearance Charts -

4.1 The order of appearance charts indicate what ships and units both sides have at the start of the game, where they must be placed at the start of the game, what sea areas, major ports and island bases both sides control at the start, what ships and units enter the game later during play, and the repair points that are available each turn.

4.2 The Japanese player takes the JAPANESE ORDER OF APPEARANCE card and places each playing piece on the square identified for that piece. Then he places control pieces on all the sea areas, ports and bases he controls at the start, which are listed under TURN 1 on his chart. Then he takes as many as he wishes of his ships listed at YOKOSUKA NAVY YARD on turn 1 and places them in the PEARL HARBOR RAID rectangle -- only ships with a speed of 5 or better can be placed in the PEARL HARBOR RAID rectangle. Finally, he places all his ships in the PEARL HARBOR RAID rectangle in the HAWAIIAN ISLANDS sea area, and places all the rest of his ships and units listed under TURN 1 on YOKOSUKA NAVY BASE. He is ready to start the game.

4.3 The ships and units that the Allied player has available at the start of the game are listed on the ALLIED STARTING FORCES chart on the back page of this booklet, and the rest of the Allied pieces that arrive on later turns are listed on the ALLIED ORDER OF APPEARANCE chart. The Allied player places all of his ships and units on the squares identified for them on these charts. He places his Control pieces down on the areas, ports and bases listed for Allied control; then he takes all his TURN 1 units and places them on the sea areas, ports and bases listed for them (Groups W, X, Y and Z are left on the STARTING FORCES chart -- they enter the game during the first turn).

4.4 At the start of each turn during the game, both players consult their order of appearance charts and place all their units listed for that turn on the major ports listed for those units. Land and air units that are returning after having been eliminated or used up on previous turns may be placed in any major port under friendly control. Then the player must remove from play any ships that are listed under REMOVALS for that turn; these ships are out of play for tie rest of the game.

4.41 If ships or units are listed as arriving at a port that is controlled by the enemy, the ships or units are lost instead. Exception: "Pearl Harbor" reinforcements may come in at Samoa if Pearl Harbor has been lost.

4.42 Removals: The Allied player must come as close as he can to removing the exact British ships that are listed as removals. If a ship that is listed has been sunk, he must remove another British ship of the same type in its place -- a battleship (a 4-4-3, 4-4-4, 4-5-6 or 3-3-6) in place of a battleship, or an 0-2-7 carrier in place of an 0-2-7 carrier (the Hermes is not treated as being the same type as 0-2-7 carriers). If all the ships of the listed type are sunk, then the Allied player must remove some other British ship (of his choice) in place of the listed ship. United States, Australian or Dutch ships are never removed, even if he runs out of British ships.

4.5 Amphibious unit and land-based air units always come back as reinforcements two turns after they are eliminated. When these units are lost, place them in the RETURNING LAND/AIR UNITS box on the second turn to follow.

4.6 The repair points that are available at each port on each turn are listed on the chart.

4.7 VICTORY IN THE PACIFIC is an eight-turn game. An optional ninth turn is included in the rules and on the charts.

5. Sequence of Play -

In each activity the Japanese player moves (or fires) first, then the Allied player. This reflects the advantage the Allies had in being able to read the Japanese code.

5.1 Both players consult their ORDER OF APPEARANCE charts and place their reinforcements on the board. Any listed REMOVALS are removed from play.

5.2 Movement Sequence

5.21 The Japanese player moves his "patrolling" ships to sea (black silhouette side up), does repairs, and turns his "raiding" ships white side up in port. After moving, he makes a “speed roll” for each “patrolling” ship that moved an extra sea area. Then the Allied player moves his “patrolling” ships, does repairs, and turns his “raiding” ships white side up in port; after movement he makes his “speed rolls” for Allied “patrollers” that moved an extra sea area.

5.22 Land-based air units are placed one at a time, with the players alternating. The Japanese player places one of his units first, then the Allied player places an Allied unit, and so on skipping a player once he runs out of units.

5.23 .The Japanese player moves his amphibious units to sea; then the Allied player moves his amphibious units to sea.

5.24 The Japanese player moves his “raiding” ships from ports and bases to sea, and after movement he makes “speed rolls” for his “raiding” ships that tried to move an extra sea area. Then the Allied player moves his "raiding" ships from ports and bases to sea, and after movement he makes “speed rolls” for his “raiding” ships.

5.25 The player who has a submarine this turn places it on any sea area on the board.

5.3 Combat Sequence

5.31 The Japanese player selects the next sea area where combat will be fought. Once combat begins in a sea area it is fought to a finish--with only one side remaining in that sea area--before combat proceeds to the next sea area.

5.32 Combat within a sea area is fought in rounds. Each round consists of one “day action” (in which only airstrike factors may attack) or one “night action” (in which only gunnery factors on surface ships may attack) or, rarely, one “day action” followed by one “night action” taking place on the same round.

5.33 The players determine whether they are fighting a “day action” or a “night action”. Their decision is in effect only for that round of combat in that sea area. If it is a “night action” the Allied player must announce which of his aircraft carriers (if any) will be firing their gunnery factors.

5.34 The Japanese player allocates all of his attacking forces for this “action” to their targets, then resolves their attacks and places the appropriate “damaged”, “disabled”, and “sunk” markers on targets that were affected. These markers do not go into effect until the end of that “action”, so the Allied ships and units get to return fire before the Japanese attacks take effect.

5.35 Then the Allied player allocates his attacks and resolves them, placing the appropriate markers as he goes.

5.36 At the end of the “action” all “damaged”, “disabled”, and “sunk” markers go into effect.

5.37 If the players are fighting a “day action” followed by a “night action” in the same round, they follow steps 5.32 through 5.36 once for the “day action”, then repeat them once for the “night action.” Note that ships lost during the “day action” are not available for the “night action.”

5. 38 Submarine attacks, amphibious landings and “retreats” do not take place until after the round.

5.4 After each round of combat in a sea area, the following actions may be taken:

5.41 First a submarine in that sea area may attack, returning to port as soon as it attacks.

5.42 Then either player can retreat from the sea area and the other player can pursue or (if
already pursuing) break off pursuit.

5.43 Finally, non-retreating amphibious units in the sea area can land (Japanese units first).

5.5 Repeat combat rounds (steps 5.32 to 5.43) until only one side has forces in the area. The victor can air raid and any amphibious units still at sea in the area can land, and then combat moves to the next sea area.

5.6 Any submarine that is still at sea is returned to port; it may attack before it is removed.

5.7 End of Turn

5.71 The players place Control Flags on the sea areas they control and add up the POC they gain for the turn. The POC TRACK is adjusted to show the new POC standing with the new POC added in.

5.72 Any port or base that is surrounded by enemy-controlled sea areas both before and after Control Flags are placed is converted to enemy control. Turn its Garrison counter over to show the new control.

5.73 Any amphibious units still at sea may invade enemy island bases in (touching) their sea areas.

5.74 Each player (starting with the Japanese) returns any of his ships and units that are still in sea areas to friendly ports and bases.

5.75 The players proceed to the next turn and repeat steps 5.1 through 5.75. At the end of the eighth turn, the game is over and the player who is ahead in the POC standings wins the game.

6. Movement -

6.1 When a ship moves, where it is placed face up or face down depends on when it moves during the turn. (The “steps below refer to the TURN SEQUENCE section).

6.11 Ships that move to sea during step 5.2 (before air units are placed) are “patrolling” ships and are placed black silhouette face up.

6.12 Ships that move to sea during step 5.5 (after air units are placed ) are “raiding” ships and are placed whit side up. Only ships in port, white side up, may move during step 5.5.

6.2 Each ship’s “speed” is used only for making “speed rolls” and during combat.

6.21 Both “patrolling” ships and “raiding” ships and amphibious units always start their move from a base or port by first moving onto a sea area that touches that base or port.

6.22 Ships and amphibious units may then move from that first sea area to an adjacent sea area.

6.221 All "patrolling" ships must make a "speed roll" if they move into a second sea area.

6.222 Red (Japanese) and Blue (United States) "raiding" ships do not have to make a “speed roll” if they move into a second sea area.

6.223 Green (British, Australian and Dutch) “raiding “ships” do have to make a “speed roll” to enter a second sea area.

6.224 Amphibious units do not have to make a “speed roll,” but they must stop in the second sea area they enter.

6.23 Japanese and United States “raiding” ships may move from the second sea area into a third sea area. All ships that move three areas must make a “speed roll.”

6.3 A ship or amphibious unit must always stop when it enters an enemy-controlled sea area. It can move no further that turn.

6.4 Speed Rolls: When a “speed roll” is made for a ship, one die is rolled and the number is compared to that ship’s speed. If the the ship’s speed is higher than the die roll, then the ship passes the speed roll, and the ship successfully enters the sea area; if the die roll is equal or higher, then the ship fails the speed roll. Note that speeds of 7 and 8 always pass.

6.41 "Patrolling" ships that fail enter the sea area but are turned white side face up--they are treated like “raiding” ships thereafter.

6.42 "Raiding" ships that fail must immediately return to a friendly port or base (see Section 10).

6.43 All speed rolls are done at the end of each step--all “patrolling” ships move before any “speed roll” are made for them, all “raiding” ships move before any of them make “speed rolls.”

6.5 Air units do not “move”--they can simply be placed in any sea area that touches any friendly port or base anywhere on the board. Air units are placed one at a time, with the players alternating, the Japanese player placing first.

6.6 Submarines may be placed in any sea area, regardless of distance or enemy control.

7. Combat -

7.1 Each turn, combat is resolved in every sea area. Combat is resolved in one sea area at a time; once started in an area it continues until finished and then starts in a new area. The Japanese player always selects the next sea area where combat will be resolved.

7.11 If he selects an area where only one side has forces, aircraft carriers in that area can air raid and amphibious units can land or invade. If the side has no carriers or amphibious units in the sea area, no combat takes place there.

7.12 If he selects an area containing opposing forces, they fight until only one side is left in the area. Then surviving carriers can air raid.

7.13 Rule 9 explains air raids and rule 13 explains amphibious units.

7.2 The rest of rule 7 explains normal combat between opposing forces in the same sea area.

7.21 Combat procedure: Both sides' ships and units fire at each other once and then losses are removed; then the survivors fire again and losses are removed again; and so on until one side is gone from the sea area. Each exchange of fire is called a "round of combat" or "battle."

7.22 There are two types of battle; "day actions" and "night actions."  Day actions are long range battles fought by airstrikes; Night actions are close range gunnery battles, usually fought at night. The type of battle determines which ships and units can attack and which can be attacked that round.

7.3 At the start of each round of combat each player chooses whether he wants a "day action" or a night action" that round, If the players agree, they fight that type of action, If they disagree, each rolls a die.

7.31 The player who wants a "day action" adds one to his roll, and the player who currently controls that sea area also adds one to his roll (for a total of +2 if he also wants a day action). The player with the higher result gets the type of action he chose.

7.32 If the result is a tie, the players fight a "day action" followed by a "night action" in the same round. This represents those rare occasions when surface actions took place during the day.

7.33 The determination of "day" or "night action" applies only to that round of combat in
that sea area. The process is repeated for every round in every sea area. A player can always choose either type of action, regardless of what he has chosen before and regardless of whether he has ships that can attack in that type of action.

7.4 Naming Targets: In an "action", first the Japanese player names his targets and resolves his attacks, and then the Allied player names his targets and resolves his attacks. The results of both sides' attacks go into effect only after the Allied attacks, so Allied units can return fire before the Japanese attacks take effect.

7.41 In "DAY ACTIONS," only aircraft carriers and air units can attack. All ships or units in the sea area can be attacked.

7.42 In "NIGHT ACTIONS," ships with gunnery factors attack. Aircraft carriers can fire their gunnery factors or not; other ships must attack. Carriers without gunnery factors cannot attack. Each player is limited as to what he can attack.

7.421 He can attack any ship that is firing its gunnery factor. At the start of the night action the Allied player must name which Allied carriers will fire, so the Japanese player will know which carriers he can shoot at. A carrier not named as firing cannot fire even if fired on.

7.422 He can attack an enemy aircraft carrier that is not firing its gunnery factor only if he also attacks every enemy ship that is attacking during that night action.

7.423 He can attack an enemy amphibious unit only if he also attacks all enemy ships in the sea area during that night action.

7.424 Air units cannot attack nor be attacked.

7.43 Only ships and units in the sea area can attack or be attacked. Ships and units in ports or bases can be attacked only during air raids.

7.44 Each attacking ship or unit is assigned to one target and executes its whole attack against that target; it cannot split its attack between different targets. Different attackers can attack different targets, or they can combine against the same target.

7.45 A player resolves his attacks only after all of his attackers have been assigned to targets. Once he starts to resolve combat he cannot change targets, even if he ends up firing at a target that he has already sunk.

7.5 Resolving Combat: The attacking player rolls one die for each shot fired by each attacker.

7.51 In a day action each aircraft carrier and air unit fires a number of shots equal to its
airstrike factor. Gunnery factors do not attack.

7.52 In a night action each ship fires a number of shots equal to its gunnery factor. Airstrikes do not attack and are ignored.

7.53 A circled gunnery/airstrike factor gets the attack bonus when it attacks an amphibious unit or ship (ignore the attack bonus when it attacks an air unit). The attack bonus adds one to each die roll when the circled factor attacks.

7.54 If the target is a ship or amphibious unit, a result of 5 DISABLES it. A "disabled" marker is put on the target. Air units are never "disabled" and ignore a roll of "5."

7.55 A result of 6 (or more) is a HIT and the attacker rolls one die to see how many damage points it inflicts. A "damage" marker showing the appropriate number is placed on the target.

7.551 When the total number of damage points on a ship or amphibious unit exceeds its armor factor, put a "sunk" marker on it.

7.552 When the total number of damage points on an air unit exceeds or equals its armor factor, put a "sunk" marker on it.

7.6 After both players have completed their attacks, combat results go into effect.

7.61 "Sunk" ships and units are removed from the board.

7.62 Each "disabled" ship or unit must return to a friendly port or base and remain there for the rest of the turn. At the end of the turn that "disabled" marker is removed, and on the next turn the ship or unit is free to move normally.

7.63 A ship or unit that is disabled and damaged takes its full damage before returning it port. If sunk and disabled, it is sunk.

7.64 In a day action followed by a night action in the same round, do steps 7.4 to 7.6 once for the day action, then repeat them for the night action. Forces lost during the day action are not available for the night action.

7.7 Effects of Damage

7.71 Speed: Each point of damage on a ship or amphibious unit reduces its speed by 1, down to the lowest possible speed of "1". Otherwise, damage does not affect movement.

7.72 Gunnery: If a ship has any damage points at all, its gunnery factor loses the attack bonus. If its damage points equal its armor factor, its gunnery factor is reduced to one (a zero gunnery factor remains.a zero).

7.73 Airstrikes: When an aircraft carrier's damage points equal its armor factor, its airstrike factor is reduced to zero. An airstrike is not affected by lesser damage-it does not lose its attack bonus due to damage.

7.8 At the end of each round of combat do the steps below in the order listed. If a round contains both a day and a night action, do the steps after both actions are complete.

7.81 First the submarine can attack, if it is in this sea area. See rule 16.

7.82 Either player can retreat from the area. The other player can pursue. See rule 8.

7.83 Japanese amphibious units that have not retreated can land. Then Allied amphibious units that have not retreated can land. See rule 13.

7.9 Repeat rounds until there is a victor in the sea area. The victor's aircraft carriers can air raid ports and bases touching that area (see rule 9).

8. Retreats -

8.1 After each round of battle in a sea area either player can retreat. The Japanese player states his intention first.

8.2 When a player retreats, his air units must instantly return to port bases and his patrolling ships become raiders and turn raider side up. Only ships and units in that area are affected.

8.3 The other player can pursue and continue the combat with any or all of his ships in that sea area (air units cannot pursue).

8.31 Each retreating ship or amphibious unit remains in the sea area until it escapes, is sunk or is disabled. When it escapes (or is disabled) it must go to a friendly port or base. It does NOT flee from area to area-it stays in its original sea area until it escapes and then goes directly to a port or base.

8.32 The retreating player forms his ships and amphibious units into one or more groups. A group can have as little as a single ship or unit. Each group retreats together at the speed of the slowest ship or unit currently in the group.

8.33 Then the pursuing player states which of his ships will pursue and assigns each pursuer to one of the retreating groups (he is not obliged to pursue every group). A ship can pursue a group only if its speed equals or exceeds the speed of the slowest ship or amphibious unit in the group. If it is slower than all ships and units in the group, it cannot pursue that group. If it is too slow to pursue any group, it cannot pursue.

8.34 Ships that do not pursue cannot start pursuing later in the turn.

8.4 Each group fights round after round of combat against its pursuers until one side is gone or the pursuers stop pursuing.

8.41 When several groups are retreating they fight their battles separately. Day/night is determined separately for each group each round, and the group fights only the ships pursuing it. Example: A group could fight a day action against its pursuers while another group in the same area fights a night action against different pursuers.

8.42 At the end of each combat round the group fighting can split into smaller groups and the pursuers can split to follow the new, smaller groups. Thereafter, the new groups fight separately as explained in rule 8.41.

8.43 Then each pursuer can stop pursuing, it wishes. It must stop pursuing if it is lower than all of the ships and amphibious units in the group it is pursuing. Once a ship stops pursuing it cannot start pursuing again that turn.

8.44 Whenever a group is no longer being pursued it escapes and every ship and unit in it instantly returns to a friendly port or base.

8.45 When all of the ships and units in a group are sunk or disabled, its pursuers stop pursuing for the rest of the turn.

8.5 Groups cannot rejoin or combine. A ship from one group cannot join a different group.

8.6 A ship can pursue only one group per turn. It cannot switch to another group.

9. Air Raids -

9.1 When combat is done in a sea area, aircraft carriers air raid after normal combat ends
there. If there is no normal combat in the area, they air raid immediately.

9.11 Only aircraft carriers that are at sea in the area can air raid. Land-based air units cannot conduct air raids.

9.12 A carrier cannot air raid if it pursued a retreating group this turn.

9.13 Each attacking carrier is assigned to a port or base that touches that sea area and can attack only that port or base. Carriers attacking the same port or base attack at the same time.

9.2 An air raid consists of two rounds of day actions in which the carriers attack the ships and units in the port or base. The ships and units in the port or base cannot return fire. The carriers attack normally except:

9.21 "Disabled" results have no effect.

9.22 Do not roll for damage when an amphibious unit is hit; a hit on an amphibious unit automatically inflicts one damage point. Ships and air units roll for damage normally.

9.23 A ship in port takes double damage before being sunk. Wheri its damage exceeds its armor factor it is "resting on the bottom" of the harbor and cannot move, but it can be repaired. In any case, it is sunk when its damage is more than double its armor factor.

9.231 When a port is captured by the enemy any ships resting on the bottom are lost.

9.232 A ship resting on the bottom in a port where it cannot be repaired is sunk.

9.3 Only the ships and units that are in the port or base at the moment can be attacked by the air raid; ships and units that return there later cannot be attacked by that air raid.

9.4 A port or base can be air raided once from each sea area it touches.

10. Ports and Bases -

10.1 When a ship or unit "returns to port" it can go to any friendly island base that touches its sea area or to any major (red) port anywhere on the map. EXCEPTIONS: British ships can return only to (if friendly) Ceylon, Singapore, Saigon or Yokosuka Naval Yard, and United States ships and units cannot return to Ceylon.

10.2 When a raiding ship fails its speed roll it goes to its sea area destination and then instantly returns to port from there.

10.3 When a ship or unit retreats from a port or base being captured by the enemy it goes to any sea area touching that port or base and then returns to port from there.

10.4 If a ship or unit has nowhere to return to it is "sunk" and removed from play.

11. Repairs -

11.1 Certain ports have "repair points" that give them the ability to remove damage points from ships. Each repair point allows the port to remove one point of damage per turn.

11.21 The Japanese player can remove 6 points of damage per turn at Yokosuka Navy Base.

11.22 The Allied player can remove 1 point of damage per turn at Ceylon. and 1 point per turn at Australia.

11.23 The number of damage points that the Allied player can remove at Pearl Harbor varies
from 0 on turn 1 to 15 on turn 6 and thereafter.

11.24 Only the original owner of a port can do repairs there. A player cannot repair in a port that he has captured from its original owner.

11.3 The points indicated above are the total number of points that can be removed at the port each turn. Example: At Ceylon the Allies can remove one point of damage from one ship, not one point from each ship. A port's repair points can be divided among different ships in the port.

11.4 A ship can be repaired in a port only if it starts the turn in the port and does not move. A player must state which ships he is repairing when he is moving his "patrolling" ships.

11.5 Repair points can be used only in the port listed and on the turn listed.

11.51 If a player loses a port he cannot use its repair points; if he retakes it he regains its repair capacity. Exception: If the Allied player loses Pearl Harbor he can use its repair points at Samoa. If he loses Samoa too, he loses this repair capacity until he retakes Samoa or Pearl Harbor.

11.52 Unused repair points are lost. They cannot be saved and used on a later turn.

12. Land-Based Air -

12.1 Land-based air units are placed on sea areas after “patrolling” ships have moved but before “raiding" ships have moved.

12.11 The players take turns placing one air unit down at a time, the Japanese player placing first.

12.12 Air units ignore distance and enemy-controlled sea areas and can be placed on any sea area on the board, except (see next rule):

12.13 A player can place an air unit in a sea area only if he controls a base or port touching that sea area. If he does not control a port or base in the sea are, he may not place an air unit there.

12.2 Land-based air units can attack and be attacked normally, but only during “day actions.”

12.21 Land-based air units do not get the “attack bonus” when they attack.

12.22 “Shots” fired at land-based air units do not get the attack bonus even if the attacking air strike is circled.

12.23 Land-based air units are not affected by “disabled” results against them.

12.24 If an air unit is in a sea area without a friendly port or base it must instantly return to port. If an enemy invades its only base it must return to port and stay there, even if the base is later recaptured.

12.25 Air units are “sunk” when their damage exceeds or equals their defense factor. (They are removed at the end of the action.)

12.3 "Sunk" air units are put on the ORDER OF APPEARANCE card and re-enter the game, undamaged, two turns later.

12.4 Land based air units count for controlling a sea area.

13. Amphibious Units -

13.1 Amphibious units move after air units but before raiding ships. An amphibious unit can move up to two sea areas without making a "speed roll" but it cannot move three sea areas; otherwise it moves like a ship.

13.2 Amphibious units do not attack but they can be attacked. Special: In night actions, they can be attacked only if all friendly ships are also being attacked.

13.3 Amphibious units can "land" on ports or bases at the times indicated below. A unit can land on any enemy base, friendly base or friendly port that touches its sea area. It cannot land on an enemy port.

13.31 At the end of each combat round in a sea area, each amphibious unit in that area can
either land or stay at sea. Japanese landings take place before Allied landings.

13.32 At the end of all combat in a sea area (after air raids) each amphibious unit in that area can either land or stay at sea. Japanese landings take place before Allied landings.

13.33 At the end of the turn all amphibious units still at sea must either land or return to port, Japanese units before Allied units.

13.4 When an amphibious unit lands on an enemy base it "invades". A unit cannot land if it retreated or was disabled this turn (it must return to port instead).

13.41 When a unit invades an enemy base it is eliminated and the base is converted to friendly control. Exception: If the base holds one or more enemy amphibious units the base stays in enemy control and one of the enemy amphibious units is eliminated instead. The invader is still lost.

13.42 If units on the same side invade a base at the same time, they invade one by one and each invasion is resolved in turn. Example: 3 units invade a base containing one amphibious unit. One invader is lost to eliminate the defending unit, one is lost to convert the base and the third lands safely on the now-friendly base.

13.43 When a base is converted turn its Garrison counter over to show the new owner.

13.44 Since the Japanese always land before the Allies, it is possible for the Japanese to capture a base and then the Allies capture it right back. If the base is the only port or base touching a sea area that holds Allied air units, the air units must return to port even though the Allies recapture the base immediately.

13.5 Amphibious units lost in invasions or combat return, undamaged, two turns later.

13.6 Damage does not affect a unit's ability to invade.

14. Capturing Ports and Bases -

14.1 A major port can be captured only at the end of a turn. It is captured only if all of the sea areas that touch it were enemy controlled both at the start of the current turn and at the end, after Control Flags were placed.

14.2 Island bases can be captured like ports, or they can be invaded. Special: If a side invades a base but the enemy controls all surrounding sea areas at the start and end of the turn, the enemy recaptures the base at the end of the turn.

14.3 Ships and units in a port or base when it is captured must instantly return to another port or base. If it was the only friendly port or base touching a sea area, all friendly air units in that sea area instantly return to port.

14.4 Returning ships and units may land at a base or port as soon as it has been captured.

15. Controlling Sea Areas -

15.1 The Control Flag in a sea area always shows who controls that area at the moment.

15.11 If a player has a Control Flag in a sea area he controls that area, even if he has no ships or units there.

15.12 If neither side has a Control Flag in a sea area, neither side controls it.

15.2 At the start of play each side controls the areas listed on its chart; neither side controls the Aleutians and North Pacific areas.

15.3 At the end of each turn (step 5.71 in the SEQUENCE OF PLAY) all Control Flags are removed from the board. Then each player puts a Control Flag in each sea area where he has a "patrolling" ship or a land-based air unit. He now controls that sea area until the end of the next turn.

15.31 Submarines, raiding ships and amphibious units do not count for controlling a sea area.

15.32 Ships and units in a port or base do not count for controlling a sea area.

15.33 If neither side has a "patrolling" ship or air unit in a sea area, no one controls it.

15.4 Starting at the end of turn 1, each time a player puts a Control Flag in a sea area he earns the POC listed in that area for his side.

16. Submarines -

16.1 Submarines may attack after a combat round or, if they have not yet attacked, after all other combat.

16.2 Each attacking submarine gets one ''shot'' with the attack bonus; it may attack any ship or amphibious unit at sea in its area. Combat effects take effect immediately.

16.3 Each submarine attacks only once per turn and then immediately returns to base.

16.4 Submarines can never he attacked.

17. Allied Fleets -

17.1 United States:

17.11 New reinforcements are placed on Pearl Harbor. If Pearl Harbor has been lost they are placed at Samoa instead.

17.12 Ships and units may return to any friendly port or base except Ceylon.

17.13 "Raiding" ships may move three sea areas, making a "speed roll" to enter the third.

17.2 British:

17.21 New reinforcements are put on Ceylon (Exception: Victorious appears at Pearl Harbor). Ships in play must be removed on certain turns as specified on the ORDER OF APPEARANCE card.

17.22 Ships cannot return to any bases, nor to any ports except (when friendly) Ceylon, Singapore, Saigon or Yokosuka Navy Yard.

17.23 Raiding ships may move only two areas and must make a speed roll to enter the second.

17.3 Australian and Dutch:

17.31 Ships can return to any friendly port or adjacent base.

17.32 Raiding ships may move only two areas and must make a speed roll to enter the second.

18. The Surprise Attack -

18.1 On the first turn, play is altered to reflect the effects of the Japanese surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor and Indonesia. Movement is executed in sequence normally, except:

18.11 The Japanese ships in the Pearl Harbor Raid force are raiders and must move to the Hawaiian Islands. Only the ships and units at Yokosuka Navy Yard can move freely.

18.12 The only Allied ships that can move are the five cruisers in Australia, Singapore and the Philippines. All other ships and units are patrollers and are frozen in place.

18.13 The first sea area where combat is resolved must be the Hawaiian islands.

18.14 The second sea area where combat is resolved must be Indonesia.

18.2 Pearl Harbor: Combat starts with a Japanese air raid (two rounds) against the ships and air unit in Pearl Harbor. The two Allied cruisers in the Hawaiian Islands are ignored.

18.21 After the air raid the Japanese player can retreat or stay for more combat. If he retreats now he cannot be pursued.

18.22 Then the Allied player rolls one die for each "LOCATION UNCERTAIN" group. If he rolls a 1, that group is put in the Central Pacific Ocean; if he rolls a 2 or 3 that group is placed in the Hawaiian Islands; if he rolls a 4, 5, or 6 the group is a turn 2 reinforcement -- put it in the turn 2 box on the Allied chart. These ships cannot move and are patrollers.

18.23 All surviving Allied ships and air units in Pearl Harbor move to the Hawaiian Islands as patrollers (ships with damage exceeding their armor factors may not go to sea). These forces cannot move.

18.24 Then the I-Boat may attack, if it is in the Hawaiian Islands.

18.25 The Allies can retreat from the sea area. If they retreat now they cannot be pursued.

18.3 If the Japanese stay in the Hawaiian Islands they can attack for two more rounds before they must retreat due to fuel shortages.

18.31 If an Allied fleet is present during an extra round it is a normal round of combat. If no Allied fleet is present, it is an air raid round.

18.32 If the Allies retreat after the first round the Japanese can pursue and carriers that do not pursue can air raid (for one round).

18.33 In any case, after two combat rounds the Japanese must stop pursuing and retreat. The Allies can pursue, if they have not retreated.

18.4 Indonesia: The Japanese player executes an air raid (two rounds) against the Allied ships and air unit in Indonesia.

18.41 Japanese land-based air units in Indonesia can attack in this air raid.

18.42 Allied ships and units can be attacked, even though they are at sea.

18.43 The Allied ships are not in a port, so they cannot take double damage. "Disabled" results are still ignored during the air raid.

18.5 After the air raid, surviving Allied forces fight normal rounds of combat against the Japanese forces in Indonesia.

18.6 When combat is finished in Indonesia, play reverts to normal in all sea areas.

OPTIONAL RULES

Each of the following rules gives an advantage to one side or the other. Players can agree to use these rules to improve the balance of the game, or they can increase the complexity of the game by using rules with offsetting advantages. NOTE: We particularly suggest that you use rule 20, which adds flavor and historical accuracy to the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.

19. The 9-Turn Game -

19.1 Although Japanese effectiveness ended historically at the Battle of the Philippine Sea (turn 8), a ninth turn can be added to the game. This adds a number of interesting points to play. Advantage: Japanese (small).

19.2 Kamikaze attacks (turn 9 only):

19.21 Japanese land-based air units must make kamikaze attacks. When they attack, they get the attack bonus, but they are automatically eliminated.

19.22 Japanese aircraft carriers can also make kamikaze attacks; such attacks get the attack bonus but the attacking ship is removed from play. The Japanese player must announce at the start of each "day action" which carriers will make kamikaze attack during that action.

19.3 The Japanese player gets one extra POC each turn he controls the Japanese Islands, and one extra POC each turn he controls Indonesia.

20. Pearl Harbor -

20.1 This rule modifies the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor that is described in rule 18. Use rule 18 except when contradicted below. Advantage: Allied (medium).

20.2 The Japanese player can assign no more than ten (10) ships to the PEARL HARBOR RAID force (due to fuel limitations).

20.3 On the first round of the air raid, the Japanese adds one to each shot's die roll (so if the shot already had the attack bonus it gets a total of plus two). This applies only to the first round of the surprise air raid.

20.4 If the 7th Air Force survives the first round of the air raid, it can attack on the second round. The Japanese forces can still air raid the ships in Pearl Harbor normally.

20.5 If the Japanese stay after the air raid, the first extra round of combat is automatically a "day action" with the following special rules.

20.51 The Japanese player names his targets before the LOCATION UNCERTAIN groups are rolled for. He can assign a carrier to a target in a LOCATION UNCERTAIN group by secretly recording the carrier and its target; if the target retreats before combat (rule 18.25) or does not appear in the Hawaiian Islands, the carrier does nothing and loses that round of attacking.

20.52 Japanese carriers can attack targets in Pearl Harbor even if the Allies have units at sea in the Hawaiian Islands.

20.6 On the second round of combat and thereafter play proceeds as explained in rule 18.

21. Gunnery Radar -

On turn 7 and thereafter, every undamaged United States ship with a gunnery factor of 3 or more gets the attack bonus in a gunnery attack. Advantage: Allied (small).

22. Damage Control -

Subtract one from each damage die roll made against a British 0-2-7 carrier or against the Taiho or Shinano, because of their armored flight decks.

Similarly, starting on turn 4 subtract one from each damage die roll made against a U.S. carrier with an airstrike of 4, to reflect improved damage control procedures after that time. Advantage: Allied (medium).

Example: An attacker gets two hits on the Taiho and rolls "3" and "1" for damage. Each roll is reduced by one, so the "3" becomes a 2 and the "1" becomes a 0. The Taiho takes a total of two points of damage.

23. Task Forces -

23.1 This rule allows the players to recreate the historical practice of dividing forces in the same sea area up into different Task Forces. Advantage: Japanese (small).

23.2 At the start of each round of combat in a sea area each player in turn (starting with the Japanese) groups his ships and units into Task Forces as he wishes.

23.3 During the round of combat, each Task Force must be either: 1) landing; 2) searching; or 3) hiding. After both players have formed their Task Forces, each player in turn (starting with the Japanese) states what each of his Task Forces will do on this round of combat.

23.4 Then each player rolls one die for each enemy Task Force to see if he sights it. SPECIAL: The player who currently controls the sea area adds one to each die roll.

23.41 If the Task Force is landing it is automatically sighted, regardless of the roll.

23.42 If the Task Force is searching, it is sighted on a die roll of 1, 2, 3 or 4.

23.43 If the Task Force is hiding it is sighted on a die roll of 1 or 2.

23.5 Then determine whether this round is a day or night action and proceed normally to the end of the round, except as noted below.

23.51 During day actions, hiding Task Forces cannot attack and only sighted Task Forces can be attacked. A hiding Task Force that is sighted can be attacked but cannot attack, and a searching or landing Task Force that is n0t sighted can attack without being attacked.

23.52 During night actions, any Task Force that is both hiding and unsighted cannot attack and cannot be attacked. Any Task force that is either searching, landing or sighted can attack and can be attacked.

23.53 During both day and night actions, an amphibious unit can land only if it is in a landing Task Force.


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