Victory in the Pacific
Official Rules Clarifications

* * Last Revised on December 31, 2008 * *

In the interests of clarity and better understanding of some fine points of Victory In The Pacific, I [Glenn E. L. Petroski] submit the following for every player's information and greater enjoyment.


Victory In The Pacific was designed by A. Richard Hamblen and published by The Avalon Hill Game Company in 1977 and 1981. It is now property of Hasbro toy and game company with all rights reserved.

I have been assisted in editing and assembling these questions and clarifications by numerous people:

Rich Hamblen, the game’s original designer, is first and foremost. Most of this material was personally reviewed and approved by him. His further input is of immeasurable value in the understanding of the game and the historical situation it represents.

 Alan Applebaum, Ray Freeman, Ken Nied, and John Pack (JP) are active players and GameMasters in their own right who continue to contribute greatly. They wrote some of the responses, leaving me final editing and organizing.

There are numerous others who provided some sort of input, all of which appreciated. Unfortunately I do not remember exactly who or what.

The second edition rules were published in December of 1981, just after Volume 18, Number 6 of THE GENERAL went to print. The second edition did an excellent job clarifying most of these items. Designer and GameMaster comments are printed following a number of questions for your greater understanding. All of these rulings are approved by the game's designer, Rich Hamblen, and The Avalon Hill Game Company.

The numbering system is a loose referencing system. The first number is the general section of the rules that deals with the question. The second number is an identifying number for that question in particular. All rule references given correspond to the second edition rules.

Questions are further referenced corresponding to the sections of the rules to which they apply, and as to when answered. A 2-digit/ 1-digit reference indicates that this was replied to in THE GENERAL of that volume/ issue. A month/year reference indicates that Avalon Hill or Rich Hamblen responded to a letter of that date. RH indicates personal remarks by Rich Hamblen. GP indicates my comments.

Answers to all of these questions are "set in stone" by the time they make it to this sheet. More questions will arise and further clarifications will be called for. These will be added and inserted as appropriate. Existing questions will not change. Question numbering will not change. A difference in edition dates will indicate further additions and clarifications.

Thru out these questions and discussions I have attempted to remain consistent in the use of abbreviations and terms, which have become standard to artificios of the game. For those less familiar, allow me to clarify.

Generally speaking, "Islands" and "Ocean" are dropped from the full name of a sea area. Thus Central Pacific Ocean becomes Central Pacific and Hawaiian Islands becomes Hawaiians.

AF - Air force or Air Flotilla.
area - Any sea area or sea zone.
BB - Battleship. In VITP; any ship with armor and gunnery factors both greater than 3.
BC - Battle cruiser. In VITP, any ship with an armor or gunnery factor of 2 or 3, and a speed factor greater than 4. Within the game of VITP, there is no functional difference between a battle cruiser and a battleship.
CA - Cruiser. In VITP; any ship with a gunnery factor of 1, an armor factor less than 3, and no airstrike.
cripple - A ship with damage equal to its armor factor. Any airstrike is reduced to zero. Any gunnery factor is reduced to 1. Any attack bonus is negated.
CV - Aircraft carrier. Generally any ship with an air strike factor.
CVL - Light aircraft carrier. Any CV with an airstrike factor less than 3.
base - Any green island base.
dp - Damage points.
IJN - Imperial Japanese Navy. Depending on usage within the game it also means Japanese, or Japanese player, or Japanese units of any type.
LBA - Land Based Air.
Marines - This one is always muddled. As used here, Marines, always with a capital "M", refers specifically to United States Marine units, and only these particular units.
NLF - Naval Landing Forces. Sometimes referred to as amphibious units, marines (small "m"), Special Naval Landing Forces, or SNLF.
OA - Order of Arrival. The turns and places when and where units enter the game. The charts which specify this.
Pearl - Pearl Harbor.
port - Any major red port.
US - This is without the "N", and means Unites States, specifically. US does not mean Allied, Allies, or Allied player. See following.
USN - United States Navy. Depending on usage within the game it also means Allies, Allied, Allied Player, or Allied units of any type.
VIP - The official abbreviation for Victory In the Pacific.
VITP - The unofficial abbreviation for Victory In the Pacific. This has been in use for 30 years. 20 years before VIP was made official. It promises to be around for a lot longer.

Second Edition
A number of players probably play VITP by the first edition rulebook. Some may not be aware that a second edition was issued by TAHGC in December 1981. This section has been added to clarify the very few changes between the two editions. Anyone who has the second edition is probably already aware of it. There is a diagonal bar, front page, upper right corner, which has SECOND EDITION printed across it. Lack of that bar means that you have the first edition. As another check, look at the copyright date on the last line of the design credits on page six of the rulebook. First edition copyright is 1977. Second edition is 1981. For consistency all rulings and comments are made on the basis of the second edition.

Second edition rules are clearer and more explicit than the first edition, but not significantly changed until you get into the optional rules.

Rule 7.73 contained a typographical error. This was combined with 7.72 and corrected: Effects Of Damage: "If damage points equal its armor factor, its gunnery [not armor] factor is reduced to 1." However, the same error is not corrected in the examples of play.

The rest of section 7 was then rewritten and renumbered. It says the same things in similar, but not identical, wording.

One real change is in section 7, End Of The Round. The wording of this section in the first edition made the air raids a "pursuit group". Thus IJN could still call the order of battle. This gave IJN the ability to evade allied air raids and promote his own. Now CVs are assigned to air raids as though they were pursuit groups, but the order of battle is predetermined for them as being LAST!

Another change is in section 9, Air Raids. Damage assessment to NLF has been changed dramatically. In the first edition any hit was accorded a damage roll, the same as any other target. The second edition does away with the damage roll entirely and simply assesses a single point of damage for each individual hit. The unit is still removed when damage exceeds its basic armor factor. This has the effect of increasing NLF ability to withstand damage by an average of 3.5 times.

A third change is rule 14.3. In the first edition LBA and NLF were eliminated or sunk when caught in a port or base that was captured by enemy forces. In the second edition they are “disabled” and sent to another port or base. This needs to be cross-referenced with rule 10.3 for a clear understanding.

Optional rule 19, the 9-Turn Game, is nearly identical. The second edition gives the IJN an added bonus point for every turn he controls Indonesia, as well as the Japanese Islands.

Optional rule 20 was the Task Force rule in the first edition. In the second edition it is Pearl Harbor. The Task Force rule was a nightmare! The new rule adds spice to the first turn raid on Pearl. In my own play, I nearly always use it.

Optional rule 21. is Gunnery Radar. The first edition did not include the Alaska, the second edition does.

Optional rule 22 was Island Combat, now gone entirely. This has been replaced by Damage Control. Both have their appeal to me.

Optional rule 23 was Anti-Aircraft. It is now the new Task Force rule. I find both to be cumbersome.

The Questions

Q.3-1 [3.1; 1/93] I can find no reference to the Dorestshire in any records. In fact, is this the Dorsetshire, misspelled?
A. Yes it is. A typographical error that has been carried over to both the counter and the OA, in both editions.

Q.3-2 [3.1; 1/93] What is the significance of the mark resembling a depth charge on the Pennsylvania?
A. Another typographical error. Some copies of the game have it, others do not. It has no significance, or value, what so ever.

Q.4-1 [4.4; 1/93] No place of arrival is listed on the IJN OA for turn 5. Where does the Musashi come on?
A. A printing oversight. The Musashi comes on at Yokosuka Navy Yard.

Q.4-2 [4.4; 4/92] Newly arriving USN LBA are marked on the OA as "also available". Where are these units supposed to come on?
A. Reinforcement air units may arrive at any friendly major red port.

Q.4-3 [4.4, 4.42; 11/80] If, at the beginning of turn 5, there are less than 4 British ships in play, does the Victorious become a substitute removal?
A. Yes.
GP: The Victorious is a British ship, available and subject to removal, the same as any other.

Q.4-4 [4.4, 4.42; 11/80, 4/92] May returning US LBA and Marines come on in Ceylon?
A. Yes. New or returning LBA and returning US Marines can come on in Ceylon.
GP: Second edition rules 4.4 and 17.12 seem to contradict each other here. Replies to other questions, as well as dictates of play reaffirm the answer given here. Specifically: New or returning US LBA and returning Marines may be brought on in Ceylon.
RH: 17.12 is not supposed to conflict. In 17.12, "returning" refers to units returning to port/base at the end of a turn, not the return of eliminated units.

Q.4-5 [4.41; 11/80] If Pearl has been captured by the IJN, may the Victorious be brought on at Samoa, as the Americans are?
A. Yes.
GP: Valid question, considering the ambiguity of the Victorious. The clarification is helpful.

Q.4-6 [4.41; 4/92] If both Pearl and Samoa have been captured by the IJN, where do the newly arriving USN ships come on?
A. The units do not come on! They are eliminated instead!
GP: This seems so clear to me, just in reading rule 4.1, that I find it surprising that it has been asked so often. I suppose the consequences are so drastic that many players find this hard to fathom.
The ships are eliminated. The Marines are sunk. Marines may return 2 turns later as returning units.
Should the USN recapture either Pearl or Samoa, he would then begin receiving new units as per the OA. However, ships listed for the turns in which the IJN retained control would NEVER enter the game. These remain PERMANENTLY lost!
RH: In retrospect, I should have printed the key rule in red, all caps, to indicate that something drastic was happening.

Q.4-7 [4.42; 11/80] If the Victorious is sunk, does some other British CV or ship have to be removed as a substitute when the Victorious is called for removal?
A. Yes, another 0-2-7, if available. Any other British ship if no CV is still in play.
GP: This remains consistent with Q4-3.

Q.4-8 [4.42; 18/6] If all British 0-2-7 CV's are sunk, but the Hermes is still in play, must it be removed in place of an 0-2-7 CV to be withdrawn?
A. No. Any British ship may be substituted. The Hermes may be removed at the USN choice, but it is not required, as long as some British ship is removed.
GP: This is specifically clarified in the second edition rules.

Q.4-9 [4.42; 5/79] When an individually named British ship is called for removal, but is bottomed in port, may it be removed, or is a substitute necessary?
A. The named ship must be removed, even if bottomed.

Q.4-10 [4.42; 4/92] If a named British ship is called for removal, but has been sunk and removed from the game, may another ship that has been bottomed in port be substituted?
A. Yes, a bottomed ship, of the right type, may be substituted.
GP: These last 2 answers threw me when I first received them, but the rulings stand.
RH: Most British removals were decommissioned or inactivated. Instead of removing an active ship and decommissioning it, the British would have just decommissioned the bottomed ship.

Q.4-11 [4.4, 4.41, 4.5; 5/02] May a player voluntarily hold off reinforcements or returning units when they are due to arrive and bring them on at a later time?
A. No. No player may voluntarily withhold arrival of any unit, although you may voluntarily “sink” or “lose” any unit of your own at any time. (Sink and lose are the same thing.)  Sunken ships are permanently out of play. Sunken LBA and SNLF (including Marines) return in two turns.
LBA and SNLF that are returning units from two turns previous are subject to the same restriction. If for any reason they do not arrive as scheduled, they are sunk again and delayed another two turns. See Q4-6, 9-7, and 11-1.

Q.5-1 [5.41; 23/5] Can subs attack NLF at the end of a round, before the landing?
A. Yes. That would be the sub's attack that turn, under rule 5.41.

Q.5-2 [5.42, 8.1; 1/93] May the USN retreat from an area after the IJN already has?
A. Yes. In fact, the IJN may also retreat from an area after the USN has, by waiting for 1 more hypothetical round with no combat.  Also, either player may withdraw from an area in which there is no combat, or even after air raids only.  In any case, this decision must be made at the time that combat for that area has reached its conclusion, before moving on to other areas of combat. Neither side may voluntarily withdraw from an area once that area has been finally settled and the IJN has named another area for combat.

Q.5-3 [5.72, 14.2; 14/4, 18/6] What happens when a NLF takes a base that is surrounded by enemy controlled sea areas at the end of the turn, and was surrounded by enemy controlled sea areas on the previous turn?
A. At the moment that the NLF lands, it captures the island; thus eliminating it as a base for LBA. The NLF is expended, and returns in 2 turns, as usual. However, at the end of the turn, the enemy has had it surrounded for 2 turns, so the enemy then recaptures it.

Q.5-4 [5.73; 4/92] On turn 2 the USN places the 10th AF in the Marianas. When the turn ends, a damaged LBA controls the Marianas and the USN gets the control flag.  On turn 3 the USN does it again, but the IJN is holding Indonesia all this time. When the turn ends, the IJN has the Sasebo NLF left in Indonesia.  Carefully following rules 5.72 & 5.73, the USN would place his flag in the Marianas, and take control of Saipan. The IJN would place his flag in Indonesia; then the Sasebo would invade the Philippines. The 10th is immediately disabled and returns to Australia. The Sasebo is used up and returns on turn 5. But the USN still has control of both the Marianas and Saipan, in spite of not having a surviving unit in the area. Is this correct?
A. The situation is extremely unlikely in that the IJN would more probably have invaded during the course of battle rather than waiting right up to the end.  However, the assumption is in error, because rule 12.24 does not prohibit an air unit from changing bases during the course of a turn. Nor does any other rule. In the situation described, the 10th has two available bases at the time that Sasebo finally invades. The IJN does gain the Philippines, but the 10th continues to operate out of Saipan and continues to patrol the Marianas for USN control.
RH: A chess player, obviously. Who else would bother to dream up such a puzzle?
JP: Let's back up a turn.  Suppose an NLF had been in Indonesia on the first turn the USN controlled the Marianas with an LBA from the Philippines.  At the end of the turn, the NLF invades the Philippines.  It's important to note that the USN still controls the Marianas.  The flag is placed and the POC are awarded first (5.71).  Saipan doesn't convert yet (5.72).  Then comes the invasion (5.73) which does not alter the flag or control even when the LBA is immediately disabled.  Note that Saipan is now threatened should the USN control the area again (as in the original question).

Q.5-5 [5.4 thru 5.5; 3/98] When your NLF invades, are you obligated to stay for another round of combat?
A. Read thru the sequence of play carefully. Technically, the reverse is true. You cannot invade until your forces are already committed to stay for another round of combat. Therefore, if you are invading, you must fight one more round of combat.

Q.5-6 [5.5, 5.71, 15.3; 7/00] Combat in a sea zone leaves only NLFs and gunless CVs with maximum damage on both sides. All other units are sunk or disabled. Neither side is willing to withdraw. What is the result?
A. Combat in the zone ends at that point. Any NLF may invade as at the end of any combat round, or end of the turn, as usual. Both sides may remain in the area.
At the end of the turn any flag must be removed, leaving the area neutral. This is in spite of patrolling or raiding status of the CVs of either side.

Q.5-7 [5.42, 8.1; 6/06] May pursuing units retreat from an area after pursuit is finished?
A. Yes. No matter what transpires a player may retreat his remaining ships and units from an area at the end of combat, before moving to another area. However, if any units retreat, all units in the area must return to base at that time.

Q.5-8 [5.2-5.24, 7/07] Does a ship have to move into a sea area by the most direct route possible?
A. No. A ship or NLF may attempt movement to any sea area by any route free of enemy control, regardless of distance, or apparent direction. The unit and areas in question must meet all stipulations for the actual route chosen. (See Q6-1).
GP: Historically, this tactic was in regular use by the IJN. It was used at Pearl Harbor to evade detection prior to the attack. It was a contributing factor at Midway and other battles as the IJN attempted pincer movements--only to their demise as the USN read the codes and plans and attacked carriers before IJN forces could support one another.

Q.6-1 [6.4, 7.71; 22/2, 4/92] May a ship which has its movement reduced to 1 due to damage attempt a speed roll?
A. A ship may attempt a speed roll even if its speed is 1. When it does so, it automatically fails. The ship must actually try to make the move, it cannot just sit in port and roll the die.
For example: as a raider, a US ship would have to move at least 2 areas and try to move 3 to make a speed roll. If the first or second area was enemy controlled, the ship would have to stop there without making the speed roll.
The same would apply to a similarly damaged ship attempting to reach a second area for patrol duty. It could attempt the move, and if successful, patrol normally. If it fails, even if failure is certain, it would function as a damaged raider.
NLF can never make speed roll moves, so they can never use this tactic.
GP: It is a technicality, but a useful trick to evacuate a port that is in danger of being air raided, and perfectly legal.
RH: As you observed, this is a slick tactic for redistributing your ships, but you cannot use it for ships that are closely surrounded by enemy control.

Q.6-2 [6.42; 1/93] When raiding ships fail speed rolls, are they returned to port one at a time, as they are rolled, or after all of the results of all the speed rolls have been determined?
A. All speed rolls for each player on each phase are done "simultaneously". After all IJN raiding ships are moved, all of those speed rolls, for all areas, are made. Then all that fail are returned to port.

Q.7-1 [7.21; 1/93] Do you have to shoot?
A. Attacking is always volitional. No ship or unit is ever required to attack in any way, at any time. You may "pass" on any round of combat, give your opponent his opportunity to attack, and go to the next round.

Q.7-2 [7.33; 14/4] Is it legal to choose a "day action" even when you have no airstrikes in the area, just to avoid enemy gunnery attacks?
A. Yes. You may always choose day or nite, regardless of what forces you have in an area.

Q.7-3 [7.33; 17/4, 4/92, 3/97] If neither the retreating nor the pursuing groups include CVs, is the day/nite determination ignored and all subsequent rounds considered nite?
A. No. You may always choose day or nite actions, regardless of what forces you have in an area. However doing so only to antagonize your opponent (or GM) is not the way to make friends. Courtesy, consideration, and good sportsmanship do count for something. See Q7-2.

Q.7-4 [7.42; 17/4, 23/5, 11/80, 1/81] THE GENERAL, Vol. 17 #4 states that a CV without a gunnery factor may screen during a nite action. A letter that I mailed in November of 1980 asked the same question and got the opposite answer! Which is correct?
A. THE GENERAL was WRONG! We have had other letters on this, too!
GP: This error in THE GENERAL Vol. 17 #4 has led to endless arguments. Every letter to TAHGC has brought back the answer given here. It has also been correctly restated in subsequent articles, most notably in Vol. 23 #5. The second edition spells the final ruling out in no uncertain terms.
To clarify: Without a gunnery factor no ship may screen another ship! However, all ships are still required to screen all friendly NLF's. See Q7-15.

Q.7-5 [7.421; 1/93] May a ship screen without attacking?
A. Yes. However, to do so the ship must have the ability to attack (i.e.: a gunnery factor). If it is a CV the owning player must clearly state that it is "on the line" and screening. It may then be attacked by enemy ships on that round of combat, even though it does not actually fire itself.

Q.7-6 [7.421; 1/93] May a ship attack without screening?
A. No. When a ship attacks during a nite action it is automatically "on the line" and screening.

Q.7-7 [7.44; 14/4] When an airstrike attacks, do all the factors attack the same target (like gunnery attacks), or does each factor strike a separate target (like War At Sea)?
A. All of the factors attack the same target (like gunnery attacks).
GP: Human nature, being what it is. Those of us who also play War At Sea can't help wondering. The rule does say it the way it is. Neither air nor gun attacks may be split in VITP.

Q.7-8 [7.551; 17/4, 18/6] In the Vol. 14 #6 replay, marines were destroyed when damage equaled their armor factor. This contradicts rule 7.551. Which is correct?
A. Rule 7.551. Damage points must exceed the damage factor of NLFs to sink them.

Q.7-9 [7.32, 7.64, 7.8; 5/79] May a retreat be ordered between a day/nite action when such has been called for by a drawn die roll?
A. No. This represents a mixed air and surface action as at Guadalcanal.
GP: A valid question. Both editions of the rule do say this, but not real clearly. When the day/nite die roll results in tie, both sides are committed to both actions before either can withdraw or invade.

Q.7-10 [7.71; 4/92] Does damage reduce a NLF's movement factor?
A. Yes.

Q.7-11 [7.72; 14/4] In rule 7.73, isn't it a ship's GUNNERY factor reduced to 1 when it takes damage equal to its armor factor?
A. YES! Not the armor factor. This was a typographical error.
GP: A simple typo that has been corrected in the second edition.

Q.7-12 [7.73; 17/4, 18/2] Rule 7.72 states: "A ship's gunnery factor loses the attack bonus if the ship has any damage." Does a damaged CV lose its airstrike attack bonus.
A. No. Not until damage equals its armor factor, at which time it loses its airstrike capability entirely.
GP: The second edition makes this absolutely clear. As long as a CV can operate planes, it retains its attack bonus.

Q.7-13 [7.42, 7.421; 10/93] May a player screen a ship that is not a CV?
A. No. Not under any circumstances!

Q.7-14 [7.423, 13.2; 8/96] May a NLF screen another unit?
A. No. Not even another NLF!

Q.7-15 [7.423, 13.2; 8/96] During a nite action, may an attacking force which outnumbers the opponent's surface ships attack an enemy NLF without attacking all enemy CVs?
A. No. Before any NLFs can be attacked during a nite action, at least 1 attacking ship with a gunnery factor must be assigned to each and every defending gun ship and CV. See Q7-4.

Q.7-16 [7.32, 7.64, 7.71, 7.8, example of play-round 2-day action; 2/98] Amagi is being pursued by New Jersey. No other units are involved. The day/nite roll results in a tie- day followed by nite. During the day action Amagi hits New Jersey causing one point of damage. No disabled result. May New Jersey fire its guns in the nite action per 7.32? Or does the damage point reduce New Jersey's speed allowing Amagi to escape per 7.64 & 7.71?
A. Amagi must escape! Amagi is committed to a full speed retreat per 8.32 and may not slow down. New Jersey suffers the consequences of the air attack per 7.71 and 7.8 before it is able to close for the nite action. As such it is slowed before it comes within gunnery range of the Amagi. Neither side has any choice.
Note that this could only occur during a pursuit situation! If Amagi were not already retreating, it would be committed to staying thru the nite action, no matter what the speed of either ship was after the day action.
If this were the case, 1 or more points of damage would remove the attack bonus from New Jersey's gunnery factor, but the USN player would still throw 5 dice. If Amagi put 9 damage on New Jersey, New Jersey would be down to a single die roll without gunnery bonus, but could still shoot. If New Jersey were disabled or sunk, that would take effect immediately, and Amagi could stay in the area or freely withdraw at IJN discretion. See 7.9.

Q.7-17 [7.3, 2/98] Who is first to declares day/nite preference for combat?
GP: This is the only place in the rules where it does not clearly state that IJN declares his intentions first. thus the question comes up repeatedly. The over-all rule stands: IJN performs EVERY action first. USN makes his choices and decisions with full knowledge of IJN intentions.

Q.7-18 [7.421, 5.33; 2/06] For an upcoming night action, does IJN name which CVs will fire gunnery factors before USN?
A. No.
GP: Pre-announcing CV intentions is something that IJN does not do - at all.

Q.7-19 [7.21, 7.421, 13.2; 9/06] USN has 6 CAs and 2 CVs. IJN has 1 CA and 1 SNLF. The first round is a night action.  Is the USN obliged to actually shoot at the IJN cruiser during the night round or may an attacker be assigned and not shoot in hopes of increasing the odds in future rounds?
A. At least one ship with the ability to attack must be assigned to attack each screening ship before any units behind the screen may be attacked. All CVs must also be attacked before any SNLFs may be attacked. Technically, the attacker must “shoot.” However, the attacker may voluntarily “miss,” as long as an individual attacker with a gun is assigned to each screening vessel.

Q.8-1 [8.31; 14/4] Can ships and units retreat thru enemy controlled sea areas to get to a friendly port?
A. Yes.
GP: A good question for clarity. Both editions imply the answer, but neither states it unequivocally. When a ship or NLF retreats or is disables it may go to any friendly island base that touches the area that it is in or to any unrestricted friendly major red port. This major port may be anywhere on the board, regardless of enemy control flags. Restrictions are: British may return only to Ceylon, Singapore, Saigon, or Yokosuka Navy Yard. US ships may not return to Ceylon. There are no basing restrictions on the Australia, Canberra, DeRuyter, Victorious, NLF, or LBA. See 10.1, Q10-1, Q17-1, and Q17-2.

Q.8-2 [8.41; 17/4] If retreating ships withdraw in more than one group, and are pursued, is there one day/nite determination affecting all groups in the area? Or does each group resolve its own day/nite determination?
A. Each group rolls individually for itself on each round of combat.
GP: The second edition does say this, but it has to be read carefully.

Q.8-3 [8.33, 9.1; 3/98] CVs are in a sea area that enemy units are retreating from. This area has two or more ports or bases that could be air raided. When are the CVs assigned to attack specific bases? Are CVs assigned to bases at the time pursuit groups are organized per 8.33? Do CVs wait until all combat is finished, including pursuits, before choosing which ports or bases to air raid?
A. CVs wait until all combat is finished, including pursuits, before choosing which ports or bases they wish to air raid. They may see the results of all retreat and pursuit actions, including where withdrawing and disabled units are sent, before choosing which bases to air raid. Once the air raids begin, the attacking carriers may not change targeted bases, even if they run out of targets at their chosen base. See 9.13, Q18-8.

Q.8-4 [8.32, 5.42; 4/06] May a player retreat at a speed slower than the slowest unit in a group?
No. Retreating groups must retreat at whatever maximum speed the slowest ship or unit in the group is able to maintain.
GP: The first edition did allow for this. The second edition is reworded and specifically outlaws the practice.

Q.8-5 [8.42, 8.43; 2/07] May a ship which is part of a pursuing group discontinue pursuit individually? Or must the entire group cease pursuit as a whole?
A. Individual ships may discontinue pursuit at any time, while other ships of the same group continue the pursuit.

Q.8-6 [8.0, 18.21, 18.24, 18.3; 12/08] If the I-boat has not yet attacked, and the IJN withdraws from the area, is the I-boat also required to withdraw?
A. No. The I-boat may remain and attack any allied ship or Marine in any group after any round of combat.  This also applies to the F-boat.

Q.9-1 [9.1; 4/92] Which comes first, Retreats or Air Raids?
A. Retreats always come before Air Raids.
GP: The first edition rules clearly stated that Air Raids were considered to be retreat actions. As such the IJN called the order of battle and could name an Air Raid as another action in that sea area at his own discretion. In the second edition, retreats become an extension of regular combat that has to be completed before any Air Raids in a given area may be conducted. In short, Retreats always come before Air Raids.
RH: The second edition didn't just clarify the first edition rules- it also changed those rules that were functioning incorrectly. The Air Raid rules are a perfect example.
In the first edition, Air Raids were just another round of combat in battle. This led to the following mare's nest: When retreating units split into two or more groups, the group that resolves its battle earlier must do its air raids while the latter groups are still at sea, fighting it out. Thus the latter groups are air-raid-proof from the first group. This emphasized the importance of the order in which the retreating battles were resolved, which encouraged the players to waste time thinking about unrealistic tactics. So I simply changed the rule in the second edition.

Q.9-2 [9.1, 9.3, 7.1; 14/4] Suppose I have CVs in an area, but cannot make air raids because there are no enemy units in the ports or bases of that area. As the turn progresses enemy units return to those ports or bases. Can I then make an air raid attack against those units?
A. Not if the combat in that sea area has already been resolved. The IJN player chooses the order in which battles are fought. If the IJN chooses to resolve the fighting in an area, even if he has no units there, then the CVs in that area must make any air raids there as soon as the combat, if any, is finished. Any CVs that do not make air raids at this time, lose all chance to do so for the rest of the turn.

Q.9-3 [9.22; 1/81, 23/5] When a NLF receives damage during an air raid which exceeds its armor factor, but not exceeding twice its armor factor, is it bottomed?
A. The NLF is sunk!
GP: The second edition makes stipulation for NLF to withstand greater punishment while ashore. This change has the effect of tripling, on an average, the NLF's ability to withstand air raids! Still, they are partially damaged or completely sunk. Never bottomed.

Q.9-4 [9.23; 1/81] If either the Kitakami or the Oi take only 1 damage point while air raided in port, are they bottomed?
A. No. Either of them would be eliminated.
GP: Mathematically correct, and according to the rules. This also applies to Zuiho, Shoho, and Ryuho, as well.

Q.9-5 [9.23; 1/81] When a ship is air raided in port, is it removed from play when the damage points EQUAL or EXCEED twice the armor factor?

Q.9-6 [9.231; 18/6] If Pearl, or any base with a repair capability, is captured and there are ships "on the bottom", may these ships be destroyed by the occupying player?
GP: The second edition rules make it MANDATORY that the bottomed ships are removed from play when the enemy captures the port that they are in.

Q.9-7 [4.4, 9.232; 22/2, 1/81,3/97] If a ship is bottomed in a port or base that has no repair capacity, are they automatically eliminated?
A. No. They may remain as targets to future air raids. In the case of Samoa and Pearl Harbor, they may remain in anticipation of repair capacity switching between bases. However, a player may voluntarily remove his own units from play, at any time, regardless of condition. Units so removed are sunk; ships and subs are permanently out of the game, SNLF and LBA may return in two turns, as usual. See Q11-1.

Q.10-1 [10.1, 13.33; 23/5] Can a NLF go to any friendly major red port at turn's end?
A. Yes. See rule 13.33 and section 10 of the rules. Invasion is not required, as long as the port or base being entered is friendly.

Q.10-2 [10.1, 17.22; 18/6, 4/92, 5/92] If Pearl is IJN controlled, the Victorious enters at Samoa, but according to 10.13 MUST return to Pearl and therefore would be lost per 10.14. What should happen?
A. The Victorious appears at Pearl, or Samoa, like a US ship. From then on it may return to ANY friendly major red port.
RH: In other words, IGNORE THE FIRST EDITION RULES ABOUT THE VICTORIOUS! This is another case where I simply changed the rule in the second edition. It takes too many rules to explain everywhere the Victorious might return, considering that she must leave at the beginning of turn 6 anyway.

Q.10-3 [10.2; 3/93] When a raiding ship fails its speed roll, where may it return?
A. A raiding ship that fails its speed roll is essentially disabled. The ship first makes its move to the area, which it is attempting, then the die would be rolled. Failing the speed roll, it may then return to any friendly green island base that touches the area it attempted to move to, or it may return to any friendly major red port, within restrictions.

Q.11-1 [11.1; 14/4] Can damaged LBA or NLF repaired (ignoring optional rules)?
A. No! However, a player may voluntarily remove his own units from play, at any time, regardless of condition. Units so removed are sunk; ships and subs are permanently out of the game, SNLF and LBA may return in two turns, as usual. See Q9-7.
GP: This refers to the first edition optional rule that has been replaced. The second edition is completely silent on the subject. The final determination is that no, there is no way that NLF or LBA can be repaired without being sunk.

Q.11-2 [11.51; 18/6] If Pearl is captured, does its repair capability continue to increase per the turn record chart?
A. Yes.
GP: Should Pearl be captured by the IJN, all of its capabilities are passed, in total, to Samoa.

Q.11-3 [11.4, 5.2] When are ships actually repaired?
A. Repairs are actually performed at the time that patrol ships are moved.
GP: This does tell your opponent that these ships are not available as raiders. It also clearly shows that they may be available for potential air raid targets. Conversely, it effects repairs well before those possible air raids can actually occur.

Q.12-1 [12.24; 18/6] The rules state that LBA are based in ports. However, the mechanics of play usually make this irrelevant. Are LBA required to be based in port?
A. LBA may operate in any area provided that they have a friendly island base or friendly major port touching that area.
Whenever they retreat, are deprived of their last operating base, or return at the end of a turn, they MUST return to a friendly MAJOR RED PORT.

Q.12-2 [12.24; 18/6] Does LBA deprived of their base really have to return to a major red port?
A. Yes, although barring poor play, this is irrelevant. It should not make a difference as long as LBA returns to a port that cannot be air raided during that turn.

Q.13-1 [13.1; 17/4] Rule 13.1 says that NLF "move like ships, except they can always move two sea areas and they never make speed rolls." Do NLF have to stop on entering an enemy controlled sea area?
A. Yes. The intent of 13.1 is to exempt NLF from speed rolls.
GP: I am a bit surprised that the second edition did not clarify a bit better. NLF must stop upon entering an enemy controlled sea area.

Q.13-2 [13.42; 5/92] When both sides have a number of NLF surviving a round in a combat area, is the IJN required to declare all of his invasion intentions before the USN announces any of his?
A. All of the IJN NLF which are invading that round must complete their invasions before any Marines invade.

Q.13-3 [13.44; 14/4] Both IJN and USN have NLF in an area with only one USN island base there. Does IJN land first, thus disabling USN LBA? Or do the Marines land at the same time, so that the USN keeps the air base and the LBA remains operational?
A. The IJN captures the base FIRST. All USN LBA must leave IMMEDIATELY! The USN may then recapture the base, but the LBA is still gone.

Q.13-4 [13.41, 13.42; 3/98] When an SNLF invades a base containing two or more enemy SNLF, who determines specifically which SNLF is lost?
A. Whenever there is a choice of which SNLF might be lost, the owning player decides his own casualties.
GP: This is not in the rulebook anywhere! It is simply a ruling that I had to make for the sake of a rule.
RH: Sorry for the oversight! This is the most logical ruling, as a commander would reform any survivors into the units he needs most.

Q.14-1 [14.2; 5/79, 1/81] Suppose the Yokosuka NLF survives turn 1 in the Central Pacific, invades, and then the USN win the naval action and retain control of the flag. Who then controls Midway, and the garrison at the end of turn 1 and the beginning of turn 2?
A. The USN.
GP: The control rule has been entirely rewritten. The actual effect remains unchanged, but clarity has been improved dramatically. Rewriting of this rule also covered this, and other potential situations arising out of turn 1, extremely well, leaving no room for question.

Q.14-2 [14.2; 7/00] If the USN controls Indonesia at the end of turn 1, who controls Saigon, and the garrison marker, at the end of turn 1 and the beginning of turn 2?
A. The USN! The IJN must control or neutralize Indonesia on turn 1 or control of Saigon goes to the USN.
GP: The control rule has been entirely rewritten. The effect remains unchanged, but clarity is improved dramatically. Rewriting of this rule covered these two and other potential situations arising out of turn 1 extremely well, leaving no room for question.

Q.14-3 [14.1, 5.72; 6/06] May a player choose not to convert an enemy port or base to his own control after he has controlled all adjacent sea areas for two full turns?
A. No!
GP: The wording of the rules does not leave this as an option. If the flags are there before and after, the port or base marker is turned to match the controlling flags.

Q.15-1 [15.31; 23/5] Can NLF control a sea area?
A. No.

Q.16-1 [16.0, 7.8; 11/80, 4/92] The submarine in play is present in an area, but has withheld its shot for some reason. The enemy now has ordered a retreat. What options does the sub have?
A. If there is a retreat, the sub may still attack at the end of any round of combat during the retreat. Or, the sub may attack when all combat is finished, if it is still at sea in an area with available targets.

Q.17-1 [17.12, 5.74, 13.33; 11/80] May Marines return to Ceylon at the end of the turn?
A. Yes.

Q.17-2 [17.12, 5.74; 11/80] May US LBA return to Ceylon?
A. Yes.

Q.17-3 [17.12; 11/80] May US LBA base their operations out of Ceylon?
A. Yes.

Q.17-4 [17.23; 18/6] While on loan to the US, the Victorious arrived in Pearl, and then operated in the South Pacific. Is it exempt from movement restrictions imposed on British ships?
A. No.
GP: This is still a British built, British operated ship, with British limitations.

Q.17-5 [17.31; 14/4] May Australian and Dutch ships base in Ceylon or Pearl?
A. Yes, either. Only British and US ships are restricted.
GP: The Australia, the Canberra, and the DeRuyter have no basing restrictions other than the "friendly" requirement.

Q.18-1 [18.22; 14/4] On turn 1, when USN survivors move out of Pearl, and the Location Uncertain groups are rolled for, may these ships then move into other areas on that same turn?
A. No! They must remain where they are or retreat in the specified manner at the appropriate time.
GP: Moving out of Pearl into the Hawaiians, or the Location Uncertain die rolls, are their patrol moves for the turn, and all the movement they are entitled to prior to withdrawals and returns.

Q.18-2 [18.22; 14/4, 5/79] Are the Location Uncertain ships that arrive on turn 1 raiders or patrollers?
A. All Location Uncertain ships are patrol ships. They control the Hawaiians and/or the Central Pacific if they remain at sea at the end of the turn.

Q.18-3 [18.3; 14/4, 22/2] Can IJN ships making the Pearl surprise attack control the Hawaiians on turn 1?
A. No! They are raiding ships. Furthermore, they MUST leave before the end of the turn.
GP: Raiding nothing! They are out of fuel and MUST LEAVE. You cannot control an area that you do not occupy at the end of the turn. Same net effect. No control!
RH: Good Answer!

Q.18-4 [18.3, 18.31; 23/5] Can the IJN Raid Force engage USN units at sea in the Hawaiians?
A. Yes. If the USN does not withdraw under rule 18.25, the IJN may attack the Indianapolis, Minneapolis, Pearl survivors at sea, the 7th AF, and/or groups W,X,Y,Z.
IJN is limited to two combat rounds (which can be day or nite under rules 7.3-7.33), and must retreat after the second round.
Attacks at sea are performed instead of against Pearl. The IJN may not further pursue retreating units under rule 18.33, due to the same fuel restrictions.

Q.18-5 [18.4; 14/4] Can the 5th AF be attacked by the surprise attack in Indonesia on turn 1?
A. Yes.
GP: It even says so in the second edition!

Q.18-6 [18.43; 14/4] What happens when a disabled is rolled against a target during the initial surprise attacks?
A. NOTHING! The surprise attacks are AIR RAIDS (even in Indonesia), and during air raids disabled results are ignored. Notice that any units that survive the surprise attacks in Indonesia must go thru one round of normal combat before they can retreat.
GP: More plain English out of the second edition. Although I would also note that during any round of normal combat in Indonesia, after the initial air raids, the British ships could be disabled as usual.

Q.18-7 [18.25; 2/98] If the USN units withdraw before any normal combat per 18.25, may they retreat to Johnston Island?
A. Yes

Q.18-8 [5.5, 9.13, 18.25, 18.3; 2/98] If the USN retreats to Johnston Island under 18.25, may the IJN air raid the units in Johnston Island?
A. No. The IJN surprise raiders are limited to attacking only those units they can "find" at sea or while air raiding Pearl Harbor! Furthermore, under rule 9.13, these CVs have already been assigned to Air Raid a base, and they may not switch targets during a turn in progress.

Q.18-9 [18.0, 18.5, 5.3, 5.4, 5.43; 7/02] If the Yokosuka SNLF goes to Indonesia on turn one, may it invade Lae or the Philippines immediately after the two rounds of surprise air raids?
A. No. The SNLF must wait until after the first round of regular combat before invading. Section 18.0 is in exception to the rules. All of 18.0 must be completed before any regular play of the game commences.

Q.18-10 [8.0, 18.21, 18.24, 18.3; 12/08] If the IJN chooses to withdraw from the Hawaiians after the second air raid, is the I-boat also required to withdraw?
A. No. The I-boat may remain in the Hawaiians and attack any allied ship that is at sea, or goes to sea, after the air raids.

Q.20-1 [20; 23/5] Optional rule 20 limits the IJN Raid Force to 10 ships, and requires the IJN to select third round targets before USN rolls for Location Uncertain groups. May this be used in conjunction with 18.4?
A. Yes, but in this application rule 20 applies to the two air raids and the third round of combat in the Hawaiians. Rule section 18 still covers the fourth and final round, and mandatory retreat.

Q.23-1 [23.4; 4/01] Optional rule 23.4 states that “each player rolls one die for each enemy Task Force to see if he sights it. SPECIAL: The player who currently controls the sea area adds one to each die roll.” This decreases the chances of finding enemy Task Forces.
Shouldn’t the player who currently controls an area have a better chance of spotting the enemy with the benefit of coastwatchers, patrol craft, and spotting aircraft operating from nearby bases?
A. This is a typographical error. It should read: SPECIAL: The player who currently controls the sea area subtracts one from each die roll.

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